Care CEUs

The Science of End of Life and Palliative Care

Trends and Dynamics

1. Race is an important consideration in understanding causes of death, as the highest mortality rates occur in which of the following?

A. Hispanics B. Non-Hispanic blacks C. Non-Hispanic whites D. Asians

2. While heart disease remains the leading cause of death among non-Hispanic whites and African Americans, Hispanics die more from which of the following than any other health condition or disease?

A. Stroke B. Motor vehicle accidents C. Cancer D. Diabetes

3. Hospice as a program of health services grew out of a philosophy of care aimed at improved approaches to symptom management and emotional and spiritual support for dying patients and their families, and its U.S. origins were closely linked to research support.

A. True B. False

Evolving Evidence-Based Practices

4. Which of the following is a benefit of Hospice?

A. Drugs for symptom control or pain relief. B. Doctor, medical, nursing, and health professional services. C. Medical equipment and supplies. D. All of the above are benefits of Hospice.

5. Which of the is not true with regards to Hospice?

A. Hospice focuses on curing and caring. B. Hospice is covered by Medicare, Medicaid, and most private insurers. C. Hospice services can be stopped for any reason but can also continue as long as patients are certified as eligible. D. In choosing hospice care, Medicare will still pay for covered benefits for any health problems that aren't related to terminal illness.

Definitional Clarity

6. Which of the following is defined as " . . . patient- and family-centered care that optimizes quality of life by anticipating, preventing, and treating suffering . . . involves addressing physical, intellectual, emotional, social, and spiritual needs and facilitating patient autonomy, access to information, and choice"?

A. End-of-Life Care B. Palliative Care C. Hospice Care D. All of the above

7. The Coalition to Transform Advanced Care threaded the term 'advanced illness' into the field in an effort to describe, " . . . when one or more conditions become serious enough that general health and functioning decline, and treatments begin to lose their impact. This is a process that continues to the end of life."

A. True B. False

The Public Federal Sector

8. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the main source for EOL PC science related to cancer.

A. True B. False

9. In addition to its scientific mission, NCI actively focuses on the translation of research information to its constituents and in creating liaisons with the practice community.

A. True B. False

10. Programs have been cultivated through the Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Centers with the goal to do which of the following?

A. Increase the basic knowledge about the aging process and how diseases of the elderly are best managed. B. Transmit knowledge to health care providers. C. Improve the quality of care delivered to elders. D. All of the above.

11. Each GRECC has all of the following except:

A. A funding component B. A research component C. An education component D. A clinical component

12. The Comprehensive End-of-Life Care Initiative was initiated as a large-scale effort to increase access to high-quality hospice and palliative care services among veterans.

A. True B. False

C. End-of-Life and/or Palliative Care Research Publications: Study Design

13. Which of the following study types seek to develop, pilot, or replicate instruments, scales, or measures?

A. Quantitative B. Qualitative C. Psychometric D. Experimental

D. End-of-Life and/or Palliative Care Research Publications: Health Conditions / Diseases

14. EOL PC published research topic categories were developed as a method to ascertain key themes and subject matter trends in the research literature since 1997.

A. True B. False

15. Which of the following were of particular interest for EOL PC published topics?

A. Determining trends in the health conditions / disease topics within the published research literature. B. Determining which health conditions / diseases represented new or emerging areas of interest. C. Determining trends for publication of EOL PC research in the areas of interest. D. All of the above.

16. Arthritis falls under which of the following health condition / disease categories?

A. Neurologic B. Renal C. Musculoskeletal D. Other

17. The majority of publications with a health condition / disease focus concentrated on Alzheimer's-related themes.

A. True B. False

E. End-of-Life and/or Palliative Care Research Publications: Topics Studied

18. Advance Care Planning agreements must be formal, written documents conveying EOL PC preferences.

A. True B. False

19. Advance Care Planning was the most frequent theme within the literature.

A. True B. False

20. Publications that included the research topic theme of "Care Settings and Types of Care" focused on the locations in which EOL PC was provided and type of care offered.

A. True B. False

21. EOL PC publications that had research themes on "Pain, Other Symptoms, or the Management of Symptoms" had a dataset that focused on the management of pain with which of the following?

A. Opioids B. Morphine C. Methadone D. All of the above

22. Coded published research themes related to Hospice included publications focused on all of the following except:

A. Hospice as a setting. B. Hospice as a cure model. C. Hospice as a care type. D. Hospice as a care model.

23. Mental Health as a topic category included all of the following areas except:

A. Hope B. Anxiety C. Bereavement D. Depression

24. The "Mental Health" category included themes of research papers focused on traditions, beliefs, and customs that are found across multi- and cross-cultural settings.

A. True B. False

25. The "Education and Training" category included the education of family, relatives, and other caregivers.

A. True B. False

26. Which of the following were included in the "Caregivers" topic category?

A. Health professionals B. Health care volunteers C. Members of the clergy D. All of the above

27. Published studies coded for "Communication" included themes related to communication between patients and health providers, individuals and their family, or communications between health care providers, but did not include ACP and/or Advance Directive topics.

A. True B. False

28. The "Prognosis" category refers to topics related to which of the following?

A. Time until death B. Estimates of time until death C. Survival or life expectancy D. All of the above

G. End-of-Life and/or Palliative Care Research Publications: Funding Sources

29. Prior to 2008, EOL PC research publications had a higher percentage of funding from federal organizations, whereas after 2008 the majority of funding came from nonfederal organizations.

A. True B. False

I. End-of-Life and/or Palliative Care Research Publications: Nonfederal Funding Sources

30. What was the most common type of nonfederal philanthropic organization support reported in the publications?

A. Academic institutions B. Private foundations C. Professional associations D. Businesses

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