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Perspectives in Alzheimer Science

Biomarkers

1. The Alzheimer science community believes that disease-modifying drugs will likely be most effective when given in the very early stages of Alzheimer's Disease, and that biomarkers will play an important role in determining which individuals should receive these drugs.

A. True B. False

2. While memory loss is often one of the first symptoms of Alzheimer's, investigators found that those who developed Alzheimer's experienced a decline in ________________ three years before diagnosis.

A. Overall cognitive ability B. Verbal and working memory C. Visuospatial Skills D. None of the above

3. A high profile study commissioned by the National Football League found that former football players had rates of dementia, Alzheimer's and other memory-related diseases that were up to 12 times higher than national norms.

A. True B. False

4. Researchers who followed 1,880 elderly New York City residents for five years found that residents who where very physically active had a ____ percent lower risk of developing Alzheimer's that sedentary residents.

A. 33 B. 31 C. 29 D. 27

Co-Existing Health Conditions

5. People with metabolic syndrome, a condition that is characterized by several heart disease risk factors including high blood pressure and low levels of good cholesterol, are at higher risk of developing Alzheimer's.

A. True B. False

Other Risk Factors

6. Numerous studies have suggested that completing more years of formal education produces a "cognitive reserve" that delays the onset of Alzheimer symptoms.

A. True B. False

Drug Pipeline

7. A key player in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease is docasahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main constituent of amyloid plaques found in the brains of people with the disease.

A. True B. False

8. Death rates for individuals with Alzheimer's who receive antipsychotic medication are significantly lower than for individuals who do not take this medication.

A. True B. False

9. In survey of 220 caregivers of individuals with dementia, ____reported occasionally screaming or yelling at the individual and ____ reported "significant" abuse such as frequently insulting or swearing at the individual.

A. 43%; 27% B. 46%; 29% C. 49%; 31% D. 52%; 33%

Basic Science Discoveries

10. The most toxic clusters of beta-amyloid that contribute to the nerve cell damage that leads to Alzheimer's appear to be:

A. Large clusters called plaques B. Small clusters called oligomers C. Clusters somewhere in between D. None of the above

AAICAD

11. The most effective predictors of conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's are decreased glucose metabolism in the brain, combined with poor memory recall.

A. True B. False

12. A study of alcohol intake and development of dementia in adults age 75 and older without dementia showed that consuming 1-2 alcoholic beverages per day was associated with a 37% lower risk of dementia in participants with normal cognitive fuction at baseline.

A. True B. False

13. One small study showed that individuals who carried the APOE-e3 and Tomm40 genes developed Alzheimer's an average of ___ years earlier than those who inherited the APOE-e3 gene only.

A. 3 B. 5 C. 7 D. 9

World-Wide Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (WW-ADNI)

14. WW-ADNI unites leading international investigators in a common effort to achieve each of the following EXCEPT:

A. Predict and monitor the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease B. Establish globally recognized standards to identify and diagnose Alzheimer's disease C. Share data across the international research community D. Promote research into new approaches to identify molecular changes associated with early Alzheimer's

Research Roundtable

15. Clinical research organizations have found that the United States is saturated with Alzheimer's clinical trials, so this along with high costs and the need for more participants has led to greater numbers of international trials.

A. True B. False

Alzheimer's Association International Society to Advance Alzheimer Research and Treatment (ISTAART)

16. ISTAART is a professional society that offers networking opportunities with the goal of facilitating interdisciplinary collaboration to lay the groundwork for accelerating advances in Alzheimer and dementia research.

A. True B. False

Bruce T. Lamb, Ph.D.

17. Studies have demonstrated that long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for arthritis is associated with a decreased risk for Alzheimer's disease.

A. True B. False

Jaya Padmanabhan, PH.D.

18. Analysis of the significance of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) indicates that:

A. ACT is present in abnormally high numbers in cells called astrocytes that surround plaques in the Alzheimer brain B. Higher levels of ACT have been reported in cerebrospinal fluid from people with Alzheimer's C. Elevated levels of ACT could serve as a biomarker for early detection and diagnosis of Alzheimer's D. All of the above

19. While cell division in cancer leads to an increase in cancer cells, in Alzheimer's it leads to the degeneration and death of:

A. Axons and dendrites B. Cytoplasm and mitochondria C. Non-dividing neurons D. Specialized organelles

Sanjay W. Pimplikar, Ph.D.

20. An area of current and future Alzheimer's research is the contribution of a fragment known as AICD (APP Intracellular Domain), which appears in increased amounts in the brains of people with the disease.

A. True B. False

Cheryl A. Luis, Ph.D.

21. Traditional cognitive tests of dementia severity such as the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) are inadequate in detecting the early cognitive signs of the illness and mild cognitive impairment.

A. True B. False

22. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a comprehensive dementia test that assesses each of the following EXCEPT:

A. Immediate and delayed memory, language fluency, and visuospatial skill B. The ability to understand and use symbols and maps C. Abstract reasoning and divided attention D. The capacity to formulate goals and objectives

23. While blood sample tests for the biomarkers beta-amyloid, inflammation-related proteins CD40 and CD40L, and apolipoprotein E-e4 (ApoE-e4) may have future beneficial implications, they have not yet shown a high degree of accuracy in diagnosing Alzheimer's.

A. True B. False

Liqin Zhao, Ph.D.

24. Elderly women are by far the principle victims of the Alzheimer disease accounting for 59 percent of cases.

A. True B. False

25. A group of plant-derived, non-steroidal estrogen-like compounds, known as ___________ may help prevent Alzheimer's in woman without increasing risk of breast cancer, stroke and blood clots.

A. Phytoestrogens B. Isoflavones C. Biosterols D. None of the above

26. Breast and prostrate cancer rates have historically been much lower in Asia than in Western countries, although more well-controlled clinical trials are needed to determine how these factors are consistently related to diet.

A. True B. False

27. A number of epidemiological studies conducted across the continents revealed a 3.5 times lower prevalence of Alzheimer's in Japan and China than in North America and Europe.

A. True B. False

28. Although many soy extract products have become available over the counter, they are unregulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration so their safety and efficacy for use by women are questionable.

A. True B. False

Perspectives In Alzheimer Science Timeline-January

29. A British study found that antipsychotic drugs used to treat aggression and other mental problems related to Alzheimer's disease may cause serious side effects such as stroke, chest infections and earlier death.

A. True B. False

March: Dementia Risk for the Obese

30. Research on the effect of obesity on cognitive loss during middle age and old age indicated that:

A. Among middle-aged study participants, obese people had a lower than average risk of developing dementia B. For elderly participants, the obese had a higher than average risk of developing dementia C. Underweight elderly people had the greatest dementia risk D. None of the above

May: Cognitive Loss Accelerates After an Episode of Delirium

31. In assessments of data from hospitalized people with Alzheimer's disease, a research team found that delirium episodes can double or even triple a person’s rate of cognitive decline.

A. True B. False

June: Older Whites and African-Americans with Cognitive Loss Have Similar Survival Rates

32. A study of 1,700 older adults, about half of whom were white and half African-American, found that people with mild cognitive impairment were 30 percent more likely to die over 10 years than cognitively healthy people.

A. True B. False

July: PTSD Increases Dementia Risk

33. Veterans aged 55 years or older with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) developed dementia at a rate of ____ over seven years compared with ____ for veterans without PTSD.

A. 12.2%; 7.4% B. 10.6%; 6.6% C. 8.9%; 5.8% D. 6.7%; 4.3%

August

34. Research has indicated that eating a Mediterranean diet and being physically active, having a formal education, and keeping the brain active could all help to lower the risk of Alzheimer's.

A. True B. False

December: Ginkgo Biloba and Memory

35. The Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory study, involving more than 3,000 people, confirmed that ginkgo biloba improved memory and prevented cognitive decline in cognitively normal older people and older people with MCI.

A. True B. False


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